The cause of mental illnesses such as ADD, ADHD, Anxiety, Depression, Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder,
aggressive and/or violent behaviours are largely due to imbalances in brain biochemistry.
A common feature of many behavioural disorders is pyroluria which is caused by either over-production
of hydroxyhemopyrrolin-2-one (HPL) during haemoglobin synthesis, or by the increased oxidative
degradation of haemoglobin. It has been also suggested that pyroluria may be due to induced intestinal
permeability (allowing HPL to re-enter systemic circulation – common during the presence of haemolytic
bacteria in the digestive tract). HPL exhibits its effect by sequestering vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) and Zinc in
situ, thus facilitating elimination of these nutrients by urinary excretion. The net result of this condition
is inhibition of biochemical processes requiring pyridoxine and zinc. In particular, pyridoxine is an
important factor in serotonin synthesis and its absence results in the impaired ability of a subject to produce
this important neurotransmitter.
Pyroluria‘s effect can be mild, moderate, or severe depending on the extent of the imbalance. Pyroluria
has strong genetic correlations, however evidence also points to elevated HPL as an indicator of oxidative
stress, which is also associated with zinc deficiency.
The result can be a myriad of symptoms including inner tension, anxiety, depression, anaemia, pessimism,
poor stress control, fearfulness, episodic anger, poor short term memory, gastrointestinal disorders, and
frequent infections. Elevated urinary pyrrole levels are found in Down syndrome (70%), Schizophrenia
(up to 70%), autism (50%), ADHD (30%), and alcoholism (up to 80%). 43% of patients diagnosed with
arthritis, chronic fatigue, heart disease, hypertension, irritable bowel, and migraine have elevated urinary
This urine test simply tests for the concentration of HPL in the urine. Samples containing levels of urinary HPL of 0 – 10 μg/dL are considered normal or negative, samples of 10 – 20 μg/dL are considered borderline, and samples above 20 μg/dL are considered elevated.
Your practitioner will then suggest a suitable treatment plan to decrease the level of HPL.
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